The elliptical Piazza San Pietro (Saint Peter’s Square) in Rome was designed by Bernini, who is also responsible for the two galleries of pillars “embracing” the square.
Saint Peter’s Square Rome
The Egyptian obelisk was brought from Heliopolis by Emperor Caligula. It was transported in a boat filled with lentils, in order to prevent the monument from breaking in half. In 1586 Pope Sixtus V ordered Domenico Fontana to place the obelisk in its present position.
The square is surrounded by Bernini‘s famous Colonnade, the two arms of which symbolically welcome the visitors into the basilica. The four rows of columns have a length of 320 meters (350 yards) and are crowned by 140 gigantic statues. When you go near the central obelisk you will see a small brick stone in the pavement. If you stand on this stone the 4 rows of colums seem to turn into just 1. Bernini created this effect by gradually diminishing the diameter of the columns. The Colonnade was finished in 1667.
Nowadays, when approaching Saint Peter’s Square from the Castel Sant’Angelo one can see the basilica and the piazza from afar. Until the 1930’s this was not possible. The Borgo district was purposely laid out in such a way that it would not be possible to have a direct view of the Vatican City from anywhere. This changed after Mussolini‘s Lateran Pact with the Catholic Church in 1929.
Every Sunday at noon (when he is in Rome), the Pope blesses the crowd gathered on the square.
Contrary to what many people expect is the Saint Peter’s Square not the biggest one in Rome. That honor belongs to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II.