Arch of Sixtus V Rome

The Arch of Sixtus V can be found on the Largo Sisto V, where the rione Castro Pretorio meets the rione Esquilino and can be considered the entrance to the San Lorenzo neighbourhood, which is not an official quarter (rione) of Rome, but a local name for part of the Tiburtino district.

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Porta Metronia Rome

The Porta Metronia is an ancient city gate along the Aurelian Walls in Rome. It is located along the Via dell’Amba Aradam, which leads to Basilica of Saint John In Lateran.

Porta Metronia Rome

History

Porta Metronia Rome
Porta Metronia

The Porta Metronia is probably named for a certain Metrobius, who used to own various properties in the area. Another name it was known by is Porta Gabiusa. This is because the road that used to lead to the ancient Volscian city of Gabii used to start here. This road more or less corresponds to the present Via Gallia.

Initially the Porta Metronia was no more than a so-called posterula, a small secret exit out of the city. This is clear because it was included at the base of a small tower on the inside of the wall. Had it been a real gate, it would have been flanked by defensive towers on each side.

In the 12th century the Porta Metronia was closed. The gate became used for a passage of a marrana, as the Romans called ditches that ran through the city. This ditch started near Grottaferrata and was brought to Rome by Pope Callisto II. A grating was put in front of the passage, so that smugglers could not enter the city.

After flowing through the gate, the ditch continued towards the San Sisto Vecchio Church, and via the Circus Maximus ended in the Tiber. Here, in the area called Cloaca Maxima, it fed 14 water mills.

The ditch created a swampy area outside the gate, which came to be called “il Pantano”. Often the stagnant water was the cause of epidemics. This swampy area was completely filled up in the beginning of the 20th century. The Marrana itself was diverted to end in the river Almone.

Description

Porta Metronia Inscriptions
Inscriptions

The gate itself has been bricked up, but its contours are still visible. It is much lower than the present street level.

On both sides of the Porta Metronia there are two arches. On one side these stem from the fascist period and on the other from the period after the war. They were created to facilitate the flow of traffic.

The two plaques on the inside refer to restoration works in 1157 and in 1579.

The 1157 restoration was carried out by the People and the Senate of Rome. The inscription states the names of the counsillors who had had the work commissioned. In those days the city displayed a strong streak of independence from the church, which is why the Pope is not mentioned in the inscription.

In the 16th century, as the inscription shows, times had changed. Pope Gregorius XIII made sure that everyone knew that it was he who had had the gate fixed out of his own pocket, 421 years after the last restoration.

Porta Metronia, Rome

Arco di Tiradiavoli Rome

The Arco di Tiradiavoli (“Devilthrower’s Arch”) is a gate along the Via Aurelia Antica in Rome, not far from the Porta San Pancrazia. It was constructed in 1612 by order of Pope Paul V Borghese as part of restoration works of the ancient Aqua Traiana Aqueduct.

Arco di Tiradiavoli Rome

Pope Paul had deemed a reconstruction of this aquaduct (hence to be called Aqua Paola) necessary in order to bring water to the rione Trastevere and to the districts around the Vatican. Building the arch was necessary in order to support the aquaduct that passed over the Via Aurelia.

At the upper part of the arch, the Pope’s coat-of-arms can be seen. There is also an inscription telling everybody what a great guy the Pope was for having restored the aqueduct, but unfortunately this inscription is wrong: They thought to have reconstructed the Aqua Alsietina aqueduct, which had been built by Augustus, instead of the Aqua Traiana.

The part of the Via Aurelia where the arch is situated until 1914 used to be called the Via di Tiradiavoli. The ghost of Pope Innocent X‘s sister-in-law, Donna Olimpia Pamphili, when there was a full moon used to race this street, leaving fire in her wake. She would continue all the way to the Ponte Sisto bridge and then throw herself into the river, only to be picked up by devils who then took her to hell.

Another theory that could explain the name is the abundance of relics of Christian martyrs that used to be found at various sites along the Via Aurelia and scared off the devils.

There was also a Marrana di Tiradiavoli (a marrana being a sort of ditch in medieval Rome) that flowed from the Villa Pamphili to the river Tiber. That ditch still exists, but runs underneath the Via di Donna Olimpia.